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Cognitive Impairment

The type of cognitive impairment can vary widely, from severe retardation to inability to remember, to the absence or impairment of specific cognitive functions (most particularly, language). Therefore, the types of functional limitations which can result also vary widely.

Dyslexia is a difference in the brain area that deals with language. It affects the under-lying skills that are needed for learning to read, write and spell. Dyslexia occurs in people from all backgrounds and of all abilities.

Learning Disabilities
People with learning disabilities find it harder to learn, but they can do so with help from other people. Learning disabilities occur in people from all backgrounds and of all abilities. More males than females have severe learning disabilities. Learning disabilities are sometimes known as learning difficulties, intellectual disabilities or developmental disabilities.

Language Disabilities
Language can become disordered when parts of the brain that store words and organise sentences become damaged or disrupted. This disorder is known as aphasia or dysphasia. The types of neurological disorders that cause aphasia are usually ones that occur suddenly, such as stroke or head injury, where some degree of recovery is usual. There are a number of broad types of aphasia.

The term dementia describes a group of symptoms caused by the impact of disease on the brain. Symptoms typically include problems with memory, speech and perception. Short-term memory is usually affected. Long-term memory may be retained Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia.

Seizure Disorders
Seizures occur when nerve cells in the body misfire. Types of seizures vary. Recurrent seizures from one of many chronic processes are considered epilepsy. However, seizures are not considered to be epilepsy if they occur only once or are correctable.


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